The Issue of Malay Language in Johor in Lembaga Malaya before the Second World War

  • Siti Zahrah Mahfood Faculty of Human Sciences, Sultan Idris Education University.
  • Nurulasyikin Hassan Faculty of Human Sciences, Sultan Idris Education University.

Abstract

This writing discusses the issue of Malay language (Bahasa Melayu) before the Second World War by focusing on Lembaga Malaya. As a newspaper that spread many views and ideas about Bahasa Melayu, Lembaga Melaya was responsible in calling on the local community to restore the dignity of their own language after the introduction of foreign languages by colonizers eroded the position of Bahasa Melayu as the main language. The development of Bahasa Melayu before British colonization is provided early in the discussion before comprehensively discussing Lembaga Melaya’s struggle in reviving the language. This writing used descriptive analysis method on Lembaga Melaya, supported by other primary and secondary sources. Several statistical data on the said topic were also included. The discussion of the topic's scope and time only covers incidences and progress from the 20th century until before the start of the Second World War. This period saw the significant development of the writing and publishing of newspapers and magazines among the local community in Johor. Equipped with its own objectives and focus on the state of Johor as the birthplace of Lembaga Melaya, this article contains the policies and strategies planned by the British to erode the position of Bahasa Melayu in Malaya. This article also describes the cries and calls to defend the dignity of Bahasa Melayu in Johor, and examines Lembaga Melaya's struggle in issues related to Bahasa Melayu. This writing also provides an overview of Lembaga Melaya’s role in defending and dignifying Bahasa Melayu until results were seen.

References

1. Abdul Hadi Ismail. (1995). Winstedt dan pendidikan orang Melayu. Jurnal Pendidik dan Pendidikan, 13, 1–12.
2. Abdul Rahim Kajai. (1984). Wartawan dan sasterawan Melayu. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
3. Abu Hanifah Haris & Roslina Ab Ghani. (2019). Daripada kolej ke universiti: Perkembangan pendidikan tinggi di Tanah Melayu 1905–1907. Malaysia dari Segi Sejarah, 47, 65–88.
4. Adnan Nawang. (1998). Za’ba dan Melayu. Berita Publishing. Ahmad. (5 April 1937). Bahasa Melayu. Lembaga Malaya.
5. Amat Juhari Moain. (2009). Sejarah perancangan bahasa Melayu di Negeri Johor. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
6. Anwar Abdullah. (2004). Biogrofi Dato’ Onn: Hidup Melayu. Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
7. Braddel, R. (1931). Legal status of Malay States. Malaya Publishing House Limited.
8. Dato’Onn. (21 November 1938). Peluang bekerja bagi anak-anak Melayu, Kerajaan Negeri-negeri yang Bersekutu cuma memandang kepada kelulusan senior sahaja. Warta Malaya.
9. Dunia dalam Seminggu Ucapan Zainal Abidin (Za’ba). (15 Mac 1940). Lembaga Malaya.
10. GA 328/1917: General Adviser, 12 June 1917, Circular Amending Clerical Scheme No.14 of 1914. ANMCJ.
11. GA 48/1913: Recommendation that the Asst.Gen. Adviser be placed in Class 1 of the Malay Clerks plus the Allowance of $300/=for Knowledge of English. ANMCJ.
12. Halaman Pak Pecocok. (28 November 1941). Anak Negeri Johor Melepas Bangsa Lain Dapat. Lembaga Malaya.
13. Hanis Izrin Mohd Hassan, Siti Mahani Angterian & Mohd Sharifudin Yusof. (2017). Kegemilangan bahasa melayu sebagai lingua franca. Jurnal Kesidang, 2, 18–30.
14. Hashim Musa. (1997). Epigrofi Melayu: Sistem tulisan dalam bahasa Melayu. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
15. Ibrahim Hj Abdul Salam. (19 Oktober 1936). Pandangan Am. Lembaga Malaya.J/RAJA 8: Surat Titah Perintah, ANMCJ.
16. Kebebasan Berfikir. (26 April 1940). Lembaga Malaya.Kemajuan. (1 Mei 1941). Idaman.
17. Ku Hasnita Ku Samsu, Adlina Ab Halim & Mohd Hafiz Sulaiman. (2013). Keupayaan bahasa Melayu di persada antarabangsa. International Journal of the Malay World and Civilisation, 1(1), 55–65.
18. MB 317/34: Pelajaran dalam Johor dan Skim Pegawai-pegawai Melayu berbahasan YMM Sultan dengan Secretary of State bagi Colony di London pada 2 November. ANMCJ.
19. Mohamed Anwar Omar Din. (2011). Asal-usul orang Melayu: Menulis semula sejarahnya. Jurnal Melayu, 7, 1–82.
20. Mohd Farhan Abd Rahman, Rohailin Zainon & Nor Adina Abdul Kadir. (2015). Sebuah analisis tentang pendekatan kajian R.O Winstedt terhadap Islam di Tanah Melayu. Jurnal Peradaban, 8, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.22452/peradaban.vol8no1.1
21. Nik Ahmad Haji Nik Hassan. (1963). The Malay press. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 36(1), 37–78. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41505523
22. Nik Safiah Karim. (1987). Sumbangan pakatan bahasa Melayu persuratan Buku Diraja Johor terhadap perkembangan bahasa Melayu. Dlm. Zahrah Ibrahim (Peny.), Tradisi Johor-Riau Kertas Kerja Hari Sastera 1983 (hlm. 41–69). Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
23. Ozay, Mehmet. (17–19 April 2012). The issue of bahasa Malayu from colonial to decolonial era. [Paper presentation]. International Conference on Colonialism and Decolonialization: Challenges and Prospects, Kuala Lumpur.
24. Penulis Kita Alor Gajah. (19 Julai 1940). Hidup Bahasa Majulah Bangsa. Lembaga Malaya. Perkhabaran Tanah Melayu. (8 Julai 1935). Lembaga Malaya.
25. Raja Masittah Raja Ariffin. (2013). Konsep merantau ke alam Melayu: Serampang Banyak mata. International Journal of the Malay World and Civilisation (IMAN), 1(2) 115–125.
26. Rencana Pengarang. (29 April 1938). Lembaga Malaya.
27. Rencana Pengarang. (Mei 1927). Hairan Dahsyat. Lembaran Guru, 10.
28. Roff, W. R. (1972). Bibliography of Malay and Arabic Periodicals. Oxford University Press.
29. Roff, W. R. (1975) Nasionalisma Melayu. Dlm. Ahmad Boestamam (Penterj.). Universiti Malaya. (Terbitan Asal 1967).
30. Ruangan Pengarang. (1 April 1935). Lembaga Malaya.
31. Ruangan Pengarang. (27 September 1937). Lembaga Malaya.SS729/21: Penyata sekolah-sekolah Melayu, al-Quran dan kitab di Johor Bahru, Muar dan Batu Pahat, ANMCJ.
32. Tan, Y. S. (2013). The British Educational Policy for The Indigenous Community In Malaya 1870–1957: Dualistic structure, colonial interests and malay radical nationalism. International Journal of Educational Development, 33(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2012.05.004
33. Winstedt, R. (1956). The Malays: A cultural history. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
34. Za’ba. (n.d). “Pemandangan mengenai orang Melayu: Kemiskinan orang Melayu dalam surat persendirian Za’ba SP 18/3B/10.
35. Zaharani Ahmad, Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin, Fazal Mohamed Mohamed Sultan, Harishon Radzi & Mohd Shabri Yusof. (2011). Pemerkasaan jati diri bahasa Melayu: Isu penyerapan kata asing. Jurnal Melayu, 6.
36. Zainal-Abidin B. Ahmad. (1941). Malay Journalism in Malaya. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 19(2), 244–250. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41560469
37. Zulkipli Mahmud. (1979). Warta Malaya penyambung lidah bangsa Melayu 1930-1941. Jabatan Sejarah Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Published
2023-12-27
How to Cite
MAHFOOD, Siti Zahrah; HASSAN, Nurulasyikin. The Issue of Malay Language in Johor in Lembaga Malaya before the Second World War. Melayu: Jurnal Antarabangsa Dunia Melayu, [S.l.], v. 17, n. 1, p. 125-148, dec. 2023. ISSN 2682-8049. Available at: <https://jurnal.dbp.my/index.php/Melayu/article/view/8738>. Date accessed: 24 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.37052/jm.17(1)no6.