Politik dan Ekonomi Terengganu pada Hujung Abad Ke-18: Kajian terhadap Warkah Sultan Mansur Shah I

Kajian Terhadap Warkah Sultan Mansur Shah I

  • Abd Ur-Rahman Mohamed Amin

Abstract

Artikel ini membincangkan tentang kandungan 17 pucuk warkah kiriman Sultan Terengganu, iaitu Sultan Mansur Shah I kepada Francis Light yang tersimpan di perpustakaan School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London dengan nombor rujukan SOAS MS 40320. Warkah bertulisan jawi ini telah dikirim sekitar tahun 1785 hingga tahun 1794. Kandungannya merangkumi politik Terengganu yang melibatkan hubungan luar dengan Siam dan Inggeris. Siam sentiasa mengugut untuk menyerang Terengganu terutamanya selepas Siam menawan Patani pada tahun 1785. Terengganu berusaha menjalinkan hubungan diplomatik dengan Kompeni Inggeris untuk melindunginya daripada serangan Siam. Namun begitu, usaha tersebut tidak berjaya disebabkan dasar tidak campur tangan Kompeni Inggeris. Dalam aspek ekonomi, Terengganu menjalin hubungan dagang dengan Palembang yang membekalkan lada dan timah dan pelabuhan di Jawa dan Borneo. Terengganu turut mempunyai hubungan dagang antarabangsa dengan China dan India. Perdagangan Sultan Terengganu diuruskan oleh saudagar raja, iaitu Saudagar Nasruddin. Kapal-kapal Inggeris turut digunakan untuk menumpangkan bakal haji ke Mekah melalui pelabuhan di Pulau Pinang dan India. Warkah ini turut menceritakan jalur keturunan Sultan Mansur Shah I yang berkait rapat dengan kesultanan Johor dan Patani. Keseluruhan kandungan warkah ini telah membantu memberikan maklumat yang lebih terperinci terhadap politik dan ekonomi kesultanan Terengganu pada hujung abad ke-18.


 


Kata kunci: Koleksi Surat-surat Francis Light, Terengganu, Sultan Mansur Shah I, cap mohor


 


Abstract


 


This article discusses the contents of 17 letters from Sultan Mansur Shah I, the Sultan of Terengganu, are preserved in the library of the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London with the reference number SOAS MS 40320. Written in Malay using Arabic script, these were sent between 1785 and 1794. The contents discussthe political history of Terengganu involving foreign relations with the Siamese and the British. The Siamese were a continuous threat to Terengganu, especially after the Siamese conquest of Patani in 1785. Therefore, Terengganu sought to establish diplomatic relations with the British East India Company to protect it from the Siamese invasion. However, the attempt was unsuccessful due to the East India Companys principle of non-involvement in Malay affairs. In terms of economy, Terengganu had trade links with Palembang, which supplied pepper and tin, as well as with ports in Java and Borneo. Terengganu also had trade relations with China and India. The Sultan of Terengganu employed a royal merchant, Saudagar Nasruddin, to manage his trade. British ships were used to carry pilgrims to Mecca through ports in Pulau Pinang and India. The letters also discuss the lineage of Sultan Mansur Shah I, which closely links him to the Johor and Patani sultanates. The entire contents of these letters have helped to provide more detailed information on the politics and economy of the Terengganu sultanate in the late 18th century.


 


Keywords: The Light Letters, Terengganu, Sultan Mansur Shah I, Malay seals


 


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Published
2020-07-07
How to Cite
MOHAMED AMIN, Abd Ur-Rahman. Politik dan Ekonomi Terengganu pada Hujung Abad Ke-18: Kajian terhadap Warkah Sultan Mansur Shah I. Melayu: Jurnal Antarabangsa Dunia Melayu, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 2, p. 271-298, july 2020. ISSN 2682-8049. Available at: <http://jurnal.dbp.my/index.php/Melayu/article/view/6774>. Date accessed: 23 oct. 2020.