Survival of Makyung in Kelantan: The Challenge under the Federal Centric Environment

  • Nurulhuda Adabiah Mustafa Senior Lecturer
  • Nuraisyah Chua Abdullah Universiti Teknologi Mara
  • Azni Mohd Dian Universiti Teknologi Mara

Abstract

Makyung is one of the many traditional performances from the Malaysian region that has shaped the Malay national cultural identity. It has been recognized as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangibles of Humanity in 2001 as well as part of intangible cultural heritage having significant cultural values propounded by the UNESCO International Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage of 2003 (ICH Convention). However, the State of Kelantan had enacted the Entertainment Control and Places of Entertainment Enactment (1998) (KECE 1998) that clearly prohibits any entertainment containing prohibited elements according to Islamic principles. Currently, the performance of makyung was allowed with certain modifications but recently, there is an intention by the state government of Kelantan to prohibit Makyung totally. It is to be noted that there are overlapping powers between the Federal and the State jurisdictions with regard to the safeguarding of makyung. At federal level, the National Heritage Act 2005 (the NHA) is the existing law in Malaysia for the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage inspired by the establishment of the ICH Convention. However, the NHA is a general law that is inadequate at giving comprehensive protection to makyung since heritage matter falls under the Concurrent List of the Ninth Schedule of the Federal Constitution where the State also has the legislative power to make law with regard to the same. In order to address this conflict, there is a need to examine the provisions in the Federal Constitutions, the NHA, KECE 1998 and evaluate to what extent these laws safeguard the performance of makyung. This study examines the conflicts in powers between both Federal and the State Legislations which powers are guaranteed by the Constitution. This study uses the qualitative research method, where a doctrinal research is conducted. This paper contends that, both powers must come to a compromise and meet halfway for the preservation of the heritage.


 


Keywords: Makyung, federal, state, intangible cultural heritage, law


 


Abstrak


Makyung merupakan salah satu persembahan tradisional yang telah memperkenalkan identiti kebudayaan kebangsaan Melayu Malaysia di persada antarabangsa. Makyung diiktiraf sebagai salah satu karya lisan kemanusiaan pada tahun 2001 oleh Pertubuhan Pendidikan, Sains dan Kebudayaan Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu (UNESCO) kerana persembahan ini mempunyai nilai budaya yang signifikan oleh Konvensyen Antarabangsa Warisan Budaya Tidak Ketara UNESCO (Konvensyen 2003 UNESCO). Walau bagaimanapun, undang-undang Negeri Kelantan telah dengan jelas melarang mana-mana hiburan yang mengandungi unsur terlarang mengikut prinsip Islam bawah Enakmen Kawalan Hiburan dan Tempat Hiburan (1998). Kini, persembahan makyung dibenarkan dengan syarat-syarat tertentu walaupun wujudnya hasrat Kerajaan Negeri Kelantan untuk melarang makyung sepenuhnya. Artikel ini memberikan tumpuan terhadap kuasa bertindih antara Kerajaan Persekutuan dan bidang kuasa Kerajaan Negeri berkenaan dengan pemuliharaan makyung di Negeri Kelantan. Pada peringkat Persekutuan, Akta Warisan Kebangsaan 2005 (NHA) sebagai undang-undang sedia ada melindungi warisan kebudayaan tidak ketara yang diilhamkan oleh Konvesyen Antarabangsa Warisan Tidak Ketara UNESCO. Walau bagaimanapun, NHA sebagai undang-undang am tidak mencukupi untuk memberi perlindungan komprehensif kepada makyung sejak perkara warisan jatuh di bawah senarai bersama Jadual Kesembilan Perlembagaan Persekutuan, iaitu Negeri juga mempunyai kuasa perundangan untuk membuat undang-undang yang berkaitan dengan perkara ini. Dalam usaha untuk menangani konflik ini, terdapat keperluan untuk menyemak peruntukan dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan, Akta Warisan Kebangsaan 2005, Enakmen Kawalan Hiburan dan Tempat Hiburan 1998 dan menilai sejauh mana sistem perundangan di Malaysia mampu memelihara seterusnya memulihara makyung sebagai sebuah seni budaya warisan Kebangsaan. Kajian ini mengkaji konflik kuasa antara daripada sistem persekutuan negara dan bidang kuasa negeri yang kuasanya dijamin oleh Perlembagaan. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah penyelidikan kualitatif, iaitu  kajian semula kepustakawanan dijalankan. Artikel ini menegaskan bahawa kedua-dua kuasa perlukan pengharmonian untuk pemeliharaan Warisan.


 


Kata kunci: Makyung, Persekutuan, Negeri, warisan kebudayaan tidak ketara, undang-undang


 


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Published
2020-07-07
How to Cite
MUSTAFA, Nurulhuda Adabiah; CHUA ABDULLAH, Nuraisyah; MOHD DIAN, Azni. Survival of Makyung in Kelantan: The Challenge under the Federal Centric Environment. Melayu: Jurnal Antarabangsa Dunia Melayu, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 2, p. 253-270, july 2020. ISSN 2682-8049. Available at: <http://jurnal.dbp.my/index.php/Melayu/article/view/7930>. Date accessed: 23 oct. 2020.