Malay Epistemology as seen in Malay Theological Works Written in Jawi from the 17th to the 19th Century
This paper intends to investigate the issue of knowledge and ways of acquiring that knowledge as it is seen in the writings of Malay scholars in Jawi. Malay scholars chosen here are those who have written on this issue via their many writings. Malay writings on Islam are known simply as kitab, denoting their Islamic heritage and background. Within this kitab genre there exist writings on theology (aqidah), jurisprudence (fiqah), and Sufism (tasawwuf) amongst others. For the sake of this paper, this study is limited to the texts mainly in theology. The aim here is to study issues connected to knowledge to come to the epistemology of Malay thinkers. It is presumptuous to think that Malay thinkers are uniform in their thinking and monolithic in their interpretation of religion. The facts speak for themselves that Malay thinkers comprised of a mixed bunch with many from different backgrounds and teachers, thus making one unified epistemology difficult, if not impossible. This research include those texts which are still being published and read by many around the country and in many instances are influential in the formation of the Malay Muslim mindset. The formation of concepts within the mind and thus making a particular view on Islam had begun with the teaching of these primary texts. Perhaps with the study of this aspect of Islamisation, people would be better equipped to understand the Malay Muslim mind of today.
Azyumardi Azra. (2004). The origins of Islamic reformism in Southeast Asia: Networks of Malay-Indonesian and Middle Eastern Ulama’ in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Allen & Unwin.
Bencheneb, H., “al-Sanūsī”. (2012). Encyclopaedia of Islam. In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs (Eds.) (2nd ed). Retrieved November 25, 2021, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_1001.Bradley, F. R.. (2016). Forging Islamic power and place: The legacy of Shaykh Daud bin Abd Allah al-Fatani in Mecca and Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press.
Bradley, F. R.. (2016). Forging Islamic power and place: The legacy of Shaykh Daud bin Abd Allah al-Fatani in Mecca and Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press.
Daud Sheikh Abdullah al-Fathani. (2011). Al-Durr al-Thamin (Permata yang indah) Menyatakan segala i’tiqad pada orang yang mu’minin. (Noraine Abu, Trans.) Al-Hidayah House of Publishers Sdn Bhd.
Hurgronje, C.Snouck. (1970). Mekka: in the latter part of the 19th century: daily life, customs and learning of the Moslims of the East-Indian-archipelago (J. H. Monahan. E.J.Brill., Trans.).
Jones, R. (1990). [Review of the book The oldest known Malay manuscript: A 16th century Malay translation of the ‘Aqā’id of al-Nasafī by Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas]. Indonesia Circle, 53, 65–67.
Kraus, W. (1992). Short note: The oldest known Malay manuscript? Indonesia Circle, 57, 38-39.
Matheson, V., Hooker, M. B.. (1988). Jawi literature in Patani: The maintenance of an Islamic tradition. Journal of the Malaysian branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 61(1) (254) 1–86.
Muhammad Zain ibn al-Faqih Jalaluddin. (2020). Bidayah al-Hidayah: Syarah Matan Ummul Barahin dengan Bahasa Melayu, (Noraine Abu, Trans.) Al-Hidayah House of Publishers Sdn Bhd.
Muhammad Zainuddin Muhammad Badawi al-Sumbawi. (2003). Sirajul Huda pada menyatakan aqidah ahli al-Taqwa (Noraine Abu, Trans.) Al-Hidayah House of Publishers Sdn. Bhd.
Olson, C. (2020). Beyond the Aviccenian turn: The creeds of Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Sanusi (d.895/1490), Studia Islamica, 115, 101-140.
Proudfoot, I. (2006). Old Muslim calendars of Southeast Asia. Handbook of Oriental studies. Brill.
Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas. (1988). The oldest known Malay manuscript: A 16th century Malay translation of the ‘Aqa’id of al-Nasafi. University Malaya.
Wan Mohd Shaghir Abdullah. (1999). Penyebaran Islam, dan silsilah, ulama sejagat, dunia Melayu. Persatuan Pengkaji Khazanah Klasik Nusantara & Khazanah Fathaniyah. 1-17.
Wan Mohd. Shaghir Abdullah. (2000). Wawasan pemikiran Islam ulama Asia Tenggara. Khazanah Fathaniyah. 1–7.
Zain al-Abidin bin Muhammad al-Fatani. (2014). Aqidatun Najin Fi Ilmi Usul Al-Din (The successful creed in the knowledge of the principles of religion). (Noraine Abu, Trans.) Al-Hidayah House of Publishers Sdn Bhd.