Supernatural Elements in Tangon and Their Connection with Ethnic Ranau Dusun Beliefs

  • Steefi Yalim Universiti Malaysia Sabah
  • Kok On Low Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Abstract

Storytelling (monusui) is an oral tradition handed down from generation to generation among the Dusun ethnic group in Sabah.  In the past, the narration of tangon (folktales) was a form of entertainment and an informal medium of education for the Dusun ethnic. A total of 44 tangon were successfully collected during fieldworks conducted in the state of Ranau. On examining the 44 tangon, 13 were found to be stories that contain supernatural elements or elements of magic. Among these are phenomena such as “humans being resurrected”, “humans giving birth to animals”, “humans morphing into birds”, and many more. These elements in tangon are the result of its creator’s imagination and creativity. The issue here is that if these elements are not analysed and highlighted, we will not be able to comprehend the imagination, creativity, and beliefs of the previous generations. The result of the analysis by way of interpretation of these supernatural elements in tangon shows that the Ranau Dusun ethnic group had a rich imagination and a great deal of creativity in conceiving these magical elements. In addition, their beliefs, which were part of the Ranau Dusun practices in the past, were also inserted in tangon.


Keywords: Magic in tangon, Ranau Dusun, creativity, supernatural elements, beliefs


Abstrak


Bercerita (monusui) ialah budaya turun-temurun dalam kalangan etnik Dusun di Sabah. Penyampaian tangon (cerita rakyat) pula merupakan hiburan dan medium pendidikan secara tidak formal dalam kalangan etnik Dusun di Sabah pada suatu ketika dahulu. Sejumlah 44 buah tangon telah berjaya dikumpulkan dalam kerja lapangan yang dilakukan di Daerah Ranau. Setelah diteliti, 12 tangon didapati kaya dengan unsur keajaiban. Antara unsur keajaiban yang dimaksudkan adalah seperti “manusia dihidupkan semula”, “manusia melahirkan binatang”, “manusia menjelma menjadi burung” dan banyak lagi. Unsur keajaiban ini merupakan imaginasi dan kreativiti si pencipta tangon. Permasalahan yang timbul di sini ialah jika unsur-unsur ini tidak dianalisis dan ditonjolkan, maka imaginasi, kreativiti dan kepercayaan rakyat pada suatu ketika dahulu tidak akan kita fahami. Hasil analisis secara interpretasi terhadap unsur-unsur keajaiban tangon Dusun Ranau mendapati bahawa etnik Dusun Ranau kaya dengan kreativiti dan imaginasi dalam penciptaan unsur-unsur keajaiban. Selain itu, dalam tangon Dusun Ranau juga, didapati ada menyelitkan unsur kepercayaan yang menjadi sebahagian daripada amalan yang diamalkan oleh masyarakat Dusun suatu ketika dahulu.


Kata kunci: Tangon magis, Dusun Ranau, kreativiti, unsur-unsur keajaiban, kepercayaan


REFERENCES


Aarne, Thompson & Uther (ATU). http://www.mftd.org/index. Accessed on 5 July 2019.


Adnand Rahmadi. (2016). 1200 fakta unik mitologi dunia. Elex Media Komputindor.


Arena Wati. (1978). Dusun. Kota Kinabalu: Penerbitan Yayasan Sabah.


Bascom, William. (1954). Four functions of folklore. The Journal of American Folklore67(266), 333-349.


Daerah Ranau. (2011). http://ww2.sabah.gov.my/pd.rnu/sejarah.html. Accessed on 8 August 2016.


Daerah Ranau. (2011). (http://ww2.sabah.gov.my/pd.rnu/desacattle.html). Accessed on 8 August 2016.


Debes, M., Lewandowska, A., and Seitz, J. (2005). Definition and implementation of context information.  https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jochen_Seitz3/publication/228938094_Definition… Accessed on 31 August 2019.


Dundes, Alan. (1980). Interpreting folklore. Bloomington & London: Indiana University Press.


Evans. I.H.N. (1953). The religion of the Tempasuk Dusuns of North Borneo. Cambridge University Press.


Fung Lan Yong. (1996). The Dusun world beliefs and customs handed down today. Borneo Post.


Godfrey, Linda S. (2009). Mythical creature. New York: Chelsea House Publishers: An Imprint of Infobase Publishing.


Gallus, Clarice & Low Kok On. (2016). Tangon Dusun Liwan: Satu Analisis Tema. Gendang Alam6, 27-54.


Hamiddun Udin. (1991). Masyarakat Kadazan/Dusun di Daerah Ranau: Kajian identiti dan interaksi antara agama. Jabatan Antroprologi & Sosiologi, Universiti Malaya.


Harun Mat Piah. (2003). Sastera rakyat Malaysia, Indonesia, Negara Brunei Darussalam: Suatu Perbandingan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.


Harun Mat Piah. (2006). Kesusasteraan Melayu tradisional. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.


Harryizman Harun dan Zulikha Jamludin, (2013). Folktale conceptual model based on folktale classification system of type, motive and function. Universiti Utara Malaysia.


Ismail Hamid. (2001). Perkembangan kesusasteraan Melayu lama. Selangor: Pearson Education Malaysia Sdn Bhd.


Kinabalu Magazine. (1953). Ranau village fair. Jeselton Lo Kwock Chuen: n.p.


Komiboros Dictionary Kamus Dusun Melayu-Dusun-English. (2014). Kota Kinabalu: Sabah Komik Publication.


Krappe, Alexander H. (1944). Animal children. California Folklore Quaterly3(1), 45-52. Western States Folklore Society.


Lindell, Kristina. (1984). Kammu Totem tales. Asian Folklore Studies, 43(1), 3-13.


Low Kok On. (2005). Membaca mitos dan legenda Kadazandusun. Bangi: Penerbit UKM


Low Kok On. (2006). Reading symbols and mythical landscape in the “Tambunan Dusun Origin Myth” of North Borneo. International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies2(2),  29-50.


Low Kok On & Lee Yok Fee. (2012). Investigating the relationship between Kadazandusun beliefs about paddy spirits, riddling in harvest-time and paddy-related Sundait. MALIM: Southeast Asia Journal of General Studies13, 65-93.


Low Kok On & Sri Ningsih. (2013). Pandangan Dunia dan Konteks Upacara dalam Sumazau Penampang, Sazau Papar dan Sumazau Paina Membakut/ (Word View and Ritual Context of the Sumazau Penampang, Sazau Papar dan Sumazau Paina Membakut Dance). Jurnal Akademika83(2&3): 47-59.


Low Kok On. (2014). Superioriti rakyat dalam lelucon cerita Abu Nawas Asal dan Cerita Abu Nawas Versi Sabah. Melayu: Jurnal Antarabangsa Dunia Melayu, 7(2),  152-171.


Low Kok On dan Azlan Shafie. (2014). Bbahul dan Hubungannya dengan Kepercayaan Bbiruhui Etnik Rungus. Jurnal Kemanusian, 21(1), 73-102.


Normadiah Nassir, Low Kok On, Ismail Ibrahim and Supyan Hussin. (2017). Unsur Kepercayaan dan Kearifan Tempatan dalam Memorat Perubatan Tradisional Etnik Murut Tahol di Sabah. KEMANUSIAAN: The Asian Journal of Humanities, 24(2), 59-88.


Othman Puteh dan Aripin Said. (2008). 366 cerita rakyat Malaysia. Utusan Publications & Distributor Sdn Bhd.


Pugh-Kitingan, J.  (2012). Kadazan Dusun. Kuala Lumpur: Institut Terjemahan & Buku Malaysia.


Sektor Penternakan Lembu Tenusu. (2016). http://ww2.sabah.gov.my/pd.rnu/desacattle.html Accessed on 8 August 2016.


Shamsuddin Kasim. (1963). Menilik kembali sastera rakyat kitaDewan Bahasa, 7(12), 533.


Shapiro, Marianne. (1983). Perseus and Bellerophon in “Orlando Furioso”. Modern Philology81(2), 109-130.


Syed Abdullah bin Syed Sulaiman. (2011). Tradisi lisan: Satu penilaian semula. TENIAT: International Journal of Creative Futures and Heritage1(1), 195-205.


Taha Abd. Kadir. (1985). Cerita tradisi Sabah. Petaling Jaya: Pelanduk Publishing.


Uther, Hans-Jorg. (2009). Classifying tales: Remarks to index and systems of ordering. Academy of Science, Arbeitsstelle Enzyklopedia des Marchens, Gottingen.

Published
2019-12-05
How to Cite
YALIM, Steefi; LOW, Kok On. Supernatural Elements in Tangon and Their Connection with Ethnic Ranau Dusun Beliefs. Malay Literature, [S.l.], v. 32, n. 2, p. 185-206, dec. 2019. ISSN 2682-8030. Available at: <http://jurnal.dbp.my/index.php/MalayLiterature/article/view/6065>. Date accessed: 08 july 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.37052/ml.32(2)no2.