Jugun Ianfu in Literary Works: A Femicide Reading

  • Siti Hajar Che Man Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Nor Atikah Zaki Universiti Sains Malaysia

Abstract

The field of Literature presents life stories, either explicitly or implicitly. Human life is depicted in literary works unconstrained by time and place. This paper attempts to recollect how women became victims of war crimes during the outbreak of the Second World War, whose impact is felt until now. They were victimized solely because they were women, forced to become sex slaves, raped, tortured and even murdered. The discussion focuses on novels, namely Perawan Remaja dalam Cengkeraman Militer [Virgin Girls in the Grip of the Military] (2001) by Pramoedya Ananta Toer and Cantik Itu Luka [Beauty is a Wound] (2004) by Eka Kurniawan. The analysis of the study will use the femicide reading pioneered by Russell. This method will show the “killing of females by males because they are females” through the sexual exploitation of women as jugun ianfu or “comfort women”. The fact is, these were women and girls who were forced to become sex slaves. This very tragic war crime has left a deep mark, and literary works that successfully portray itare historical and cultural documents for future generations to ponder and react to.


Keywords: Femicide, war crimes, jugun ianfu, sexuality, literature.


Abstrak


Bidang Ilmu Kesusasteraan menawarkan pelbagai kerencaman tentang kehidupan sama ada terpancar secara tersurat mahupun tersirat. Fenomena kehidupan manusia menerusi karya kesusasteraan tidak terbatas waktu dan tempat. Menerusi makalah ini, satu perbincangan cuba mengimbau kembali golongan wanita yang menjadi mangsa jenayah perang ketika meletusnya perang dunia kedua dan kesannya hingga kini terasa. Golongan ini teraniaya kerana mereka perempuan, menjadi hamba seks kepada tentera lelaki tanpa rela, diperkosa, diseksa bahkan dibunuh. Tumpuan perbincangan memfokuskan kepada genre novel antaranya Perempuan Remaja dalam Cengkeraman Militer (2001) karya Pramoedya Ananta Toer dan Cantik Itu Luka (2004) karya Eka Kurniawan. Analisis kajian akan menggunakan bacaan femicide yang dipelopori oleh Russell. Kaedah ini juga akan memperlihatkan bagaimana “the killing of females by males because there are females” merupakan eksploitasi seksual terhadap wanita yang disebut sebagai jugun ianfu atau comfort women. Hakikatnya, golongan ini adalah wanita dan gadis remaja yang dipaksa menjadi hamba seks. Situasi ini telah meninggalkan kesan jenayah perang yang penuh tragis dan karya sastera telah berjaya memaparkan peristiwa ini sebagai satu dokumen sejarah dan budaya untuk tatapan dan tindakan generasi yang akan datang.


Kata kunci: femicide, jenayah perang, jugun ianfu, seksualiti, sastera


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Published
2020-06-09
How to Cite
CHE MAN, Siti Hajar; ZAKI, Nor Atikah. Jugun Ianfu in Literary Works: A Femicide Reading. Malay Literature, [S.l.], v. 33, n. 1, p. 45-66, june 2020. ISSN 2682-8030. Available at: <http://jurnal.dbp.my/index.php/MalayLiterature/article/view/6247>. Date accessed: 09 july 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.37052/ml.33(1)no3.