Pola Sebutan Monoftong Bahasa Jerman oleh Penutur Bahasa Melayu

  • Yusnul'ain Yunus UITM
  • Stefanie Pillai Universiti Malaya

Abstract

Kajian ini tertumpu pada sebutan monoftong bahasa Jerman (B3) oleh penutur Melayu. Aspek yang dilihat ialah perbandingan cara sebutan monoftong B3 dengan sebutan monoftong bahasa Melayu Standard (B1) dan bahasa Inggeris (B2). Tujuannya untuk menilai jika terdapat persamaan dari segi sebutan monoftong yang hampir sama. Seramai 10 orang penutur perempuan berbangsa Melayu yang sedang mempelajari B3 telah membaca ayat yang mengandungi perkataan dengan monoftong sasaran dalam konteks /bVd/ dan /bVt/ bagi ketiga-tiga bahasa. Kesemua penutur juga mampu berbahasa Inggeris sebagai bahasa kedua. Berdasarkan model kekerapan forman, forman pertama (F1) dan kedua (F2) monoftong sasaran telah diukur. Durasi monoftong sasaran turut diukur. Taburan plot daripada monoftong yang setara antara tiga bahasa (B3, B1 & B2) turut dinilai dalam konteks pemerolehan B3. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa penutur cenderung untuk menghasilkan monoftong yang setara dengan ciri-ciri akustik yang sama semasa menghasilkan sebutan monoftong baharu B3 dengan vokal dari B1 atau B2 yang hampir. Hasil kajian ini dijangka mampu menyumbang kepada kajian pemerolehan B3.


Kata kunci: monoftong, pembelajaran bahasa ketiga, bahasa Jerman, bahasa Melayu, bahasa Inggeris


 


Abstract


This study investigates the pronunciation of German monophthongs (L3) by Malay speakers. It also compares the way the L3 monophthongs are produced with the monophthongs produced in Standard Malay (L1) and English (L2) to examine if there are any similarities in the way that equivalent vowels are produced. A total of 10 female Malay speakers who were learning German were recorded reading aloud carrier sentences containing the target vowels in a /bVd/ and a /bVt/ context in all three languages. All these speakers also speak English as a second language. Based on the formant frequency model, the first (L1) and second (L2) formants of the target monophthongs were measured. The duration of the vowels was also measured. Scatter plots of the vowels were also generated to enable comparison among similar sets of vowels within and among the three languages within the context of L3 acquisition. The findings suggest that speakers tend to produce equivalent vowels with similar acoustic properties, whilst tending to collapse new ones in the L3 to neighbouring L1 or L2 vowels. The findings from this study contribute to the growing area of L3 acquisition research.


Keywords: monophthong, L3 acquisition, German, Malay, English


RUJUKAN


 


Adank, P., Smits, R., & Hout, R. (2004). A Comparison of Vowel Normalization Procedures for Language Variation Research. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 116, 3099-3107.


Antoniadis, Z., & Strube, H. (1984). Untersuchungen zur spezifischen Dauer deutscher Vokale. Phonetica, 72-87.


Aoyama, K. et al. (2004). Perceived Phonetic Diddimilarity and L2 Speech Learning: The Case of Japanese /r/ and English /l/ and /r/. Journal of Phonetics, 233-250.


Asmah Haji Omar.  (1988). Susur Galur Bahasa Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.


Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2013, October 27). Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer. Amsterdam, Netherlands. Akses pada November 5th, 2013, daripada http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/


Bohn, O.-S., & Flege, J. E. (1992). The Production of New and Similar Vowels by Adult German Learners of English. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14(2), 131-158.


Brenner, K., Huszka, B., & Werk-Marink, C. (2006). Deutsche Phonetik: Eine Einfrung. Budapest: Bcsz Konzorcium.


Delattre, P. (1964). Comparing the Vocalic Features of English, German, Spanish and French. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 2(2), 71-97.


Escudero, P., & Williams, D. (2011). Perceptual Assimilation of Dutch Vowels by Peruvian Spanish Listeners. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.


Flege, J. E. (1995). Second Language Speech Learning Theory, Findings, and Problems. Strange, W. (Ed), Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Issues in Cross-Language Research (pp. 233-277). Timonium, MD: York Press.


Fry, D. B. (1979). The Physics of Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press


Guion, S. G., Flege, J. E., Yamada, R. A., & Pruitt, J. C. (2000). An Investigation of Current Models of Second Language Speech Perception: The Case of Japanese Adults Perception of English Consonants. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 107, 2711-2724.


Gut, U. (2010). Cross-linguistic Influence in L3 Phonological Acquisition. International Journal of Multilingualism, 7(1), 19-38.


Hammarberg, B., & Hammarberg, B. (2005). Re-setting the basis of articulation in the acquisition of new languages: A third-language case study. B. Hufeisen, & R. Fouser (Ed.), Introductory Readings in L3 (pp. 11-18). Tubingen: Stauffenburg.


Abdullah Hassan.  (2005). Linguistik Am. Siri Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu. Selangor: PTS Professional Publishing Sdn. Bhd.


Iverson, P., & Evans, B. G. (2007). Learning English Vowels With Different First-Language Vowel Systems: Perception of Formant Targets, Formant Movement, and Duration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122(5), 2842-2854.


Jgensen, H. P. (1969). Die gespannten und Ungespannten Vokale in der Norddeutschen Hochsprache mit Einer Spezifischen Untersuchung der Struktur ihrer Formantenfrequenzen. Phonetica, 217-245.


Kamus Dewan (Edisi Keempat). (2005). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.


Kent, R. D., & Read, C. (2002). Acoustic Analysis of Speech (ed. 2nd). Albany, New York: Thomson Learning.


Ladefoged, P. (2001). A Course in Phonetics (ed. 4th). Texas: Harcourt College Publisher.


Ladefoged, P. (2001). Vowels and Consonant: An Introduction to the Sounds of Languages. Oxford: Blackwell.


Ladefoged, P. (2003). Phonetic Data Analysis: An Introduction to Instrumental Phonetic Fieldwork. Oxford: Blackwell.


Ladefoged, P., & Ladefoged, J. (2003). German Vowels. Akses pada September, 2013, daripada UCLA Phonetics Lab Data: http://www.phonetics.ucla.edu/vowels/chapter14/germ.html


Lado, R. (1964). Language Teaching: A Scientific Approach. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc.


Lex, B., & Redecker, B. (2005). Phonetik auf einen Blick. H. Funk, C. Kuhn, & S. Demme (Eds.), Studio D A1. Deutsch als Fremdsprache: Kurs- und ungsbuch. (pp. 229-230). Berlin: Cornelsen Verlag.


Littlewood, W. (1984). Foreign and Second Language Learning. Language-acquisition Research and Its Implications for the Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Mardian Shah Omar.  (2005). Perbezaan Bunyi Vokal dan Konsonan: Satu Analisis Spektografik. Proceedings of the Seminar Kebangsaan Linguistik (SKALI 2005), (pp. 1-9). Bangi, Malaysia.


Marx, N., & Mehlhorn, G. (2010). Pushing the positive: encouraging phonological transfer from L2 to L3. International Journal of Multilingualism, 7(1), 4-18.


Mayr, R., & Escudero, P. (2010, July). Explaining Individual Variation In L2 Perception: Rounded Vowels In English Learners of German. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 279-297.


Munro, J. (1993). Productions of English vowels by native speakers of Arabic: Acoustic measurements and accentedness ratings. Language and Speech, 39-66.


Rausch, R., & Rausch, I. (2002). Deutsch f Auslder. Berlin: Langenscheidt Verlag Enzyklopedie.


Roach, P. (2000). English Phonetics and Phonology (ed. 3rd). Cambridge: University Press.


Roswati Abdul Rashid, Radhiah Ismail, & Noor Haslina M. Akhir. (2007). Kepelbagaian Strategi Pembelajaran Tulisan Asas Bahasa Jepun (Hiragana): Satu Kajian Deskriptif. 3L Journal of Language Teaching, Linguistics and Literature, 13.


Russ, C. V. (2010). The Sounds of German. New York: Cambridge University Press.


Schunk, G. (2002). Studienbuch zur Einfrung in die deutsche Sprachwissenschaft: Vom laut zum Wort. Wzburg: Verlag Kigshausen & Neumann GmbH.


Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 209.


Selke, R. (2013). Post-PASCH Challenges in Teaching German Language in Malaysia. Studies on Foreign Language and Culture. 2, . 70-94. Serdang: UPM Press.


Shaharina Mokhtar & Shahidi A. Hamid.  (2012). Analisis Akustik terhadap Forman Bunyi Vokal Bahasa Melayu: Satu Perbandingan antara Gender. Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Sciences & Humanities, 301-313. Bangi, Malaysia.


Stefanie Pillai. (2014). The Monophthongs and Diphthongs of Malaysian English: An Instrumental Analysis. (Hajar Abdul Rahim, & Shakila Abdul Manan (Eds.), English in Malaysia: Postcolonial and Beyond, 55-85.


Stefanie Pillai,  Manueli, M. K., & Dumanig, F. P. (2010). Monophthong vowels in Malaysian and Philippine English: An exploratory study. Philippine Journal of Linguistics, 41, 80-93.


Stefanie Pillai, Zuraidah Mohd Don, Knowles, G., & Tang, J. (2010). Malaysian English: An Instrumental Analysis of Vowel Contrasts. World Englishes, 29(2), 159-172.


Tan, R., & Low, E.-L. (2010). How different are the monophthongs of Malay speakers of Malaysian and Singapore English? English World-Wide, 31(2), 162-189.


Tomaschek, F., Wieling, M., Arnold, D., & Baayen, H. (2013). Word Frequency, Vowel Length and Vowel Quality in Speech Production: An EMA Study of the Importance of Experience. 14th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association. Lyon: Europa Organisation.


Watt, D., & Tillotson, J. (2001). A Spectrografic Analysis of Vowel Fronting in Bradford English. English World-Wide, 22(2), 269-302.


Wrembel, M. (2014). VOT Patterns in the Acquisition of Third Language Phonology. International Symposium on the Acquisition of Second Language Speech (pp. 750-770). Concordia Working Papers in Applied Linguistics.


Yap, N., Wong, B., & Adi Yasran Abdul Aziz. (2010). Representation of English front vowels by Malay-English bilinguals. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 379-389.


Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf.  (2013). A comparative study of vowels in the Acehnese language spoken in Kedah, Malaysia and Aceh, Indonesia. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.


Yunus Maris. (1980). The Malay sound system. Kuala Lumpur: Fajar Bakti.


Zwicker, E., & Terhardt, T. (1980). Analitical Expression for Critical - Band Rate and Critical - Bandwidth as a Function of Frequency. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 68, 1523-1525.

Published
2020-07-07
How to Cite
YUNUS, Yusnul'ain; PILLAI, Stefanie. Pola Sebutan Monoftong Bahasa Jerman oleh Penutur Bahasa Melayu. Melayu: Jurnal Antarabangsa Dunia Melayu, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 2, p. 223-252, july 2020. ISSN 2682-8049. Available at: <http://jurnal.dbp.my/index.php/Melayu/article/view/7139>. Date accessed: 23 oct. 2020.