Understanding the Role of Key Stakeholders and the Challenges in Developing Shariah-compliant Medical Tourism in Malaysia: A Legal Perspective

  • Noor Shuhadawati Mohamad Amin Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Law, International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Noriah Ramli Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Law, International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Majdah Zawawi Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Law, International Islamic University Malaysia

Abstract

The search for healthcare treatment tailored to religious and ethical beliefs has gained popularity in the changing medical tourism environment. This study examines the complexities of Shariah-compliant medical tourism in Malaysia, emphasizing on the critical role of stakeholders in a comprehensive legal framework. The methodology adopted for this study is doctrinal. An important issue that has arisen is the lack of engagement between healthcare providers and appropriate government organisations in developing Shariah-compliant medical tourism. This study initially identifies relevant stakeholders who promote Shariah-compliant medical tourism. It then analyses the role of relevant government agencies, healthcare providers and religious scholars in addressing this topic, alongside legal concerns and religious requirements. This research examines the obstacles and potential in aligning medical tourism practices with Shariah principles. An investigation into the involvement of stakeholders in the legal framework highlighted the critical need to harmonise Islamic principles and modern healthcare services, thus supporting the development of Shariah-compliant medical tourism in Malaysia. This study recommends the formation of a Shariah Advisory Committee to oversee the stakeholders. This committee will ensure that all key stakeholders are not only consulted, but also play an active role in advising government agencies on important policies and measures through integrated research. This cooperative strategy aims to bridge the gap between JAKIM as a responsible institution with relevant ministries and healthcare providers, in addition to promoting this sector globally. This committee is expected to create a synergistic environment that increases the profile of Shariah-compliant medical tourism in Malaysia.

References

1. Abdul Razif Zaini & Yoyo, Y. (2021). The awareness of muslim consumers towards the halal logo in Malaysia. Akademika, 91(Isu Khas), 27-37.
2. Ahmed Kamassi, Noor Hazilah Abdul Manaf & Azura Omar. (2020). The need of international Islamic standards for medical tourism providers: A Malaysian experience. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 12(1), 113- 123.
3. Ameer Fikri Mohamad Hilmi, Muhamad Fakhrul Aiman Mohd Asri, Zainul Arif Mohd Ariffin, Muhammad Iman Hakim Hasbullah, Fazura Minhad & Mohamad Hilmi Mat Said. (2021, 23-24 Ogos). Cabaran pensijilan halal: Kesediaan pengusaha industri dan premis makanan. [Prosiding] Prosiding Konferen 3rd International Halal management Conference, 2021. Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia.
4. Buisson, Laing. (2023, 4 Ogos). Medical tourism’s rapid expansion in Malaysia, Iran, and London. https://www.laingbuissonnews.com/imtj/news-imtj/medical-tourisms-rapid-expansion-in-malaysia-iran-and-london/
5. Carrera, P., & Bridges, J. (2006). Health and medical tourism: What they mean and imply for health care systems. Health and Ageing. The Geneva Association.
6. Connell, J. (2013). Medical tourism. University of Sydney.
7. Henderson, J. C. (2010). Sharia-compliant hotels. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(1), 246-254.
8. Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM). (2016). National strategic plan for health 2016–2020. http://www.moh.gov.my/moh/resources/Penerbitan/Other/National%20Strategic%20Plan%20for%20Health%202016-2020.pd
9. Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM). (2023). Program flagship medical tourism hospital di Malaysia Healthcare Travel Council (MHTC). https://www.moh.gov.my/index.php/pages/view/6615 diakses 10 Mei 2023.
10. Kementerian Pelancongan. (2007, 5 November). Health tourism in Malaysia. Tourism Malaysia. https://www.tourism.gov.my/media/view/health-tourism-in-malaysia.
11. Makmor Tumin, Abdillah Noh, Nurulhuda Mohd Satar, Chong Chin-Sieng, Lim Soo-Kun, Nawi Abdullah & Ng Kok-Peng. (2013). Organ donation in Muslim countries: The case of Malaysia. Annals of Transplantation, 18, 671-676. https://doi.org/10.12659/AOT.889194
12. Malaysian Health Travel Council (MHTC). (2019, 3 Mei). Malaysia’s medical tourism on a high.https://www.mhtc.org.my/2019/05/03/malaysias-medical-tourism-on-a-high/
13. Malaysian Health Travel Council (MHTC). (2023). Healthcare travelling statistics. https://www.mhtc.org.my/statistics/
14. Mohammad Aizat Jamaludin, Betania Kartika, Mohd Anuar Ramli & Muhammad Hazrul Hamzah. (2019). Muslim-friendly hospital services framework. Halal Journal, 3(1).
15. Muhammad Aa’zamuddin Ahmad Radzi, Munirah Sha’ban, Nur Syamimi Mohd Azharuddin, Azran Azhim & Abdurezak Abdulahi Hashi. (2020). Survey on relevant Malaysian fatwā about cadaver concerning tissue engineering research. Pertanika Social Sciences & Humanities, 28(2), 1451-1466.
16. Muhammad Ikhlas Rosele, Luqman Abdullah, Paizah Ismail & Mohd Anuar Ramli. (2017). Konflik fatwa di Malaysia: Satu kajian awal. Jurnal Fiqh, 10(1), 31-56.
17. Muhammad Khalilur Rahman, Moniruzzaman Sarker & Azizul Hassan. (2021). Medical Tourism: The Islamic Perspective. Tourism Products and Services in Bangladesh. The Spinger Link.
18. Muhammad Khalilur Rahman, Noor Raihani Zainol, Noorshella Che Nawi, Ataul Karim Patwary, Wan Farha Wan Zulkifli & Md Mahmudul Haque. (2023). Halal healthcare services: Patients' satisfaction and word of mouth lesson from Islamic-friendly hospitals. Sustainability, 15(2), 1493. MDPI AG. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su15021493
19. Nair, D. (2022, 2 Jun). GMTI 2022 report: Malaysia is still the most popular Muslim travel destination. Zafigo. https://zafigo.com/news/20220602-gmti-2022-malaysia-popular-muslim-travel-destination/#:~:text=The%20MasterCard%2DCrescentRating%20Global%20Muslim,(Image%20by%20Esmonde%20Yong.)
20. Norhidayah Pauzi & Saadan Man. (2018). Perkembangan pentadbiran pensijilan halal di Malaysia 1974-2016: Satu tinjauan. Research in Islamic Studies Journal, 5(1).
21. Noriah Ramli. (2022). Halal medical tourism: Emerging opportunities. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Research & Review, 3 (5), 64-86.
22. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Unit. (2022). Tentang Unit Kerjasama Awam Swasta. https://www.ukas.gov.my/en/about-ukas
23. Suseela Devi Chandran, Ahmad Shah Pakeer Mohamed, Azizan Zainuddin, Fadilah Puteh, & Nur Alia Azmi. (2017). Medical tourism: Why Malaysia is a preferred destination? Advanced Science Letters, 23(8).
24. The Star. (2023, 2 Januari). Stronger, more positive comeback for Malaysia's medical tourism. https://www.thestar.com.my/lifestyle/travel/2023/01/02/a-stronger-more-positive-comeback-for-malaysia039s-medical-tourism
25. Thomas, S, Beh, L. S & Rusli Nordin. (2011). Health care delivery in Malaysia: Changes, challenges and champions. Journal of Public Health Africa, 2(2).
26. Vovk, V., Beztelesna, L., & Pliashko, O. (2021). Identification of factors for the development of medical tourism in the world. International Journal of Environment Res Public Health, 18(21), 11205. doi: 10.3390/ijerph182111205. PMID: 34769723; PMCID: PMC8583346.
Published
2023-12-26
How to Cite
MOHAMAD AMIN, Noor Shuhadawati; RAMLI, Noriah; ZAWAWI, Majdah. Understanding the Role of Key Stakeholders and the Challenges in Developing Shariah-compliant Medical Tourism in Malaysia: A Legal Perspective. Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, [S.l.], v. 36, n. 1, p. 1-20, dec. 2023. ISSN 2682-8057. Available at: <https://jurnal.dbp.my/index.php/Kanun/article/view/8810>. Date accessed: 24 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.37052/kanun.36(1)no1.