The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Standardization and Coordination of Fatwas in Malaysia

(Impak Pandemik COVID-19 Terhadap Penyeragaman dan Penyelarasan Fatwa di Malaysia0

  • Mohd. Kamel Mat Salleh Akademi Pengajian Islam Kontemporari, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Adibah Bahori Akademi Pengajian Islam Kontemporari, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Muhammad Firdaus Abdul Manaf Akademi Pengajian Islam Kontemporari, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Nursafra Mohd. Zhaffar Akademi Pengajian Islam Kontemporari, Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Sirajuddin Suhaimee Bahagian Penyelidikan, Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has created new landscapes and norms in the Malaysian society, including issues related to Muslims' religious practices. Some of the practices affected include the postponement of the weekly Friday prayer, congregational prayers in mosques and suraus nationwide, and several other related matters. The fatwas made amidst a health crisis are in line with the legal view decided by the Special Muzakarah Committee of the National Council for Islamic Religious Affairs (MKI), which is supervised under the Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) and later overseen at the state level. The streamlining of fatwa issuance opens a new dimension to the standardisation and coordination of fatwas in Malaysia initiated by the decision, which has national significance, by the MKI. In contrast to previous practices, which position fatwas as the state's exclusive right, efforts to standardise and coordinate fatwas faced constraints. This study seeks to answer whether fatwas are challenging to coordinate in Malaysia despite state laws' provisions asserting that coordination can occur through the MKI and issues of national interests. This qualitative study uses document analysis for legal provisions that allow for coordination and standardisation. The findings of this study explain that the standardisation and coordination of fatwas are not strenuous to implement. The Syariah decisions regarding COVID-19 have had a considerable impact and have become a benchmark for further coordination and standardisation of other fatwas in Malaysia.


Keywords: COVID-19, standardization and coordination of fatwas, MKI Muzakarah Committee, national interest

References

Ahmad Hidayat Buang. (2012). Ke arah membangun garis panduan dan piawaian pengeluaran fatwa di Malaysia. Nilai: Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia. Muzakarah Pakar: Garis Panduan dan Piawaian Pengeluaran Fatwa Peringkat Kebangsaan. Anjuran Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Nilai 24 Oktober.

Akta Pencegahan dan Pengawalan Penyakit Berjangkit 1988

Akta Polis 1967

Arik Sanusi, Y. J. (2010). Penyelarasan fatwa di Malaysia: Kekangan dari aspek perundangan. Monograf al-Ifta',1(7), 74-86

Enakmen Fatwa Negeri Sabah (2004)

Enakmen Mufti dan Fatwa Kedah Darul Aman (2008)

Enakmen Pentadbiran Agama Islam Negeri Johor (2003)

Enakmen Pentadbiran Agama Islam Negeri Melaka (2002)

Enakmen Pentadbiran Agama Islam Negeri Pulau Pinang (2004)

Enakmen Pentadbiran Agama Islam Negeri Selangor (2003)

Enakmen Pentadbiran Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (2003)

Enakmen Pentadbiran Agama Islam Perak (2004)

Enakmen Pentadbiran Agama Islam Perlis (2006)

Enakmen Pentadbiran Undang-Undang Islam Pahang (1991)

Enakmen Pentadbiran Undang-Undang Islam Sabah (1992)

Ghazali Abdul Rahman. (2020). Peranan Jawatankuasa Fatwa dalam Menyelaraskan Fatwa Antara Negeri. Sepang: Hotel Sama-Sama. Multaqa Jawatankuasa Fatwa Seluruh Malaysia. Sepang 21-23 September.

Harding, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: From start to finish. Sage Publications Ltd.

Kompilasi Pandangan Hukum Jawatankuasa. (2018). Muzakarah Kebangsaan (Majlis Kebangsaan Bagi Hal Ehwal Ugama Islam Malaysia). Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia.

Lokmanulhakim Hussain. (2013). Penyelarasan fatwa di Malaysia: Kewajaran dan kekangan. Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia.

Mahamad Naser Disa. (2011). Ke arah penyelarasan dan penyatuan pandangan dalam pengeluaran hukum di Malaysia : Perspektif Perundangan. Monograf Al-Ifta',2(5), 89-106. Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia.

Merriam, S.B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. Jossey-Bass.

Mohamed Azam, M. A. (2012). Penyelarasan Fatwa : Isu, Masalah dan Harapan. Kertas kerja Seminar Kebangsaan Penyelarasan Penguatkuasaan Fatwa di Malaysia 2012. Anjuran Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia & Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia. Nilai Negeri Sembilan, 12 April.

Mohd Hamzah, I. (2014). Kesan Ketidakseragaman Fatwa : Pandangan Dari Sudut Undang-Undang. Kertas Kerja Bengkel Penyelarasan Pengurusan Fatwa Jabatan Mufti Seluruh Malaysia. Anjuran Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia, Shah Alam.

Mohd. Mohadis Yasin. (2007). Pengurusan dan Penyelarasan Fatwa: Pelaksanaan dan Cabaran di Malaysia. Jurnal Pengurusan Dan Penyelidikan Fatwa, 1(1), 119-135

Muhamad Miziazam, Y., Mansor, S., & Hasan, A. (2018). Penyelarasan fatwa dan kaedah penyelesaiannya di Malaysia: Suatu kajian literatur. International Journal of Humanities Technology and Civilization (IJHTC). Universiti Malaysia Pahang Press. Issue 4. 1, December, 22-35;

Muhammad Fathullah Al Haq, M. A., & Jasni, S. (2017). Penyelarasan fatwa antara negeri-negeri: Analisis amalan dan kaedah penyeragamannya di Malaysia. Jurnal Pengurusan dan Penyelidikan Fatwa, 9, 86-109.

Muhammad Ikhlas Rosele, Luqman, A., Paizah, I., & Mohd Anuar Ramli. (2013). Konflik Fatwa di Malaysia: Satu Kajian Awal. Jurnal Syariah,10 (10), hlm. 31-56

Pelan Strategik Jabatan-Jabatan Mufti Seluruh Malaysia (2010-2014). Putrajaya: Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia.

Pelan Strategik JAKIM (2015-2019). Putrajaya: Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia.

Peraturan Majlis Kebangsaan Bagi Hal Ehwal Ugama Islam Malaysia. (2013).

Perlembagaan Persekutuan. (2006). International Law Book Services.

Zaini Nasohah. (2005). Undang-undang penguatkuasaan fatwa di Malaysia. Jurnal Islamiyyat, 27(1), 25-43.

Zulfaqar Mamat. (2013). Muzakarah Jawatankuasa Fatwa Majlis Kebangsaan bagi Hal Ehwal Ugama Islam Malaysia: Kajian terhadap penerimaan dan penolakan di peringkat negeri (Tesis Dr. Falsafah tidak diterbitkan). Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Published
2021-07-05
How to Cite
MAT SALLEH, Mohd. Kamel et al. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Standardization and Coordination of Fatwas in Malaysia. Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, [S.l.], v. 33, n. 2, p. 269-286, july 2021. ISSN 2682-8057. Available at: <http://jurnal.dbp.my/index.php/Kanun/article/view/8079>. Date accessed: 24 oct. 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.37052/kanun.33(2)no4.