Custody of Mualaf's Child: Resolution of Law Conflict in Malaysia

(Hak Pemeliharaan Anak bagi Mualaf: Konflik Undang-Undang di Malaysia)

  • Redwan Yasin Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Noor Aziah Mohd Awal Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Nurhafilah Musa Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Abstract

In Malaysia, disputes concerning custody rights are among the frequently-debated topics in cases of conversion to Islam, if it involves a marriage previously registered under civil law. Since coming into force, a frequent issue that has arisen is the rights of convert spouses under the Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce) Act 1976 (Act 164), specifically Sections 3 and 51, as the muallaf (convert to Islam) does not have the right to petition for dissolution of marriage under this Act. However, in 2017, amendments were made to this Act to bring about better and more efficient resolutions to any legal issues arising in such matters. Therefore, this article aims to compare the concept of hadhanah (care and protection of children) in Islamic law with custody rights under Malaysian civil law. The factors that frequently give rise to conflict were analysed, as well as the implications of the 2017 amendments (Act 164) concerning the application procedure for custody rights of convert spouses. Library research was employed to collect data for content analysis. The findings show that the amendments are able to aid in resolving issues concerning divorces of converts who were previously bound to a civil marriage without the right to petition for dissolution. The amendment also allows both spouses the right to apply for custody of a child after their divorce has been finalized by the civil court. The study further recommends that in such cases, child welfare, and not the rights of the converted parent, should be the main concern at all times.


Keywords: Child custody, Muallaf, Islamic law, civil law

References

Abu Dawud. (1984). Sunan Abu Dawud (Jil. 2). Terjemahan Inggeris oleh Prof. Ahmad Hassan, Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers & Booksellers

Akta Perkahwinan dan Perceraian (Akta 164)

Andrew I.Scepard. (2004). Children, courts, and custody: interdisciplinary models for divorcing families. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press

Ahmad Ibrahim. (1997). Family law in Malaysia. Selangor: Malayan Law Journal.

al-Jaziri, Abd al-Rahman. (1969). Al-Fiqh 'ala al-Madhahib al-Arba'ah (Jil. 4). Kaherah: Maktabah al-Tijariyyah al-Kubra.

al-Sharbini, Muhammad al-Khatib. (1978). Mughni al-Muhtaj 'ila Ma'ani alfaz al-Minhaj (Jil 3). Beirut: Dar al-Fikr.

al-Zuhaily Wahbah. (1997). Al-fiqh al-Islami wa adillatuhu (Jil. 7). Dimashq: Dar al-Fikr.

Dina Imam Supaat. (2012). The principle of best interests of the child as the basis of state obligation to protect refugee children in Malaysia. South East Asian Journal of Contemporary Business Economic and Law.

Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi. (t.t.). Al-Mughni (Jil. 7). Beirut: Dar al-Fikr.

Khadijah Mohd Khambali @ Hanbali. (1994). Perkahwinan ahl al-kitab: Suatu kajian hukum. Jurnal Syariah, 2(2). Universiti Malaya: Fakulti Syariah.

Mehrun Siraj. (2012). Resolving child custody disputes: The law & practice in Malaysia, Selangor: LexisNexis Sdn Bhd.

Mohamad Azam Mohamed Adil. (2006). Perundangan dan kenegaraan Islam. Selangor: iBook Publication Sdn Bhd.

Mohamed Azam Mohamed Adil & Rafeah Saidon (2017). Religion as a determinant of child welfare in custody cases in Malaysia and classical Islamic law: A comparative overview. Islam and Civilisational Renewal, ICR 8.1 Produced and distributed by IAIS Malaysia.

Mohamed Azam bin Mohamed Adil. (2014). Penentuan agama dan hak penjagaan anak-anak dalam undang-undang Islam. Putrajaya: Jabatan Kebajikan Islam Malaysia.

Mohamed Azam bin Mohamed Adil & Rafeah Saidon. (2016). Religion as a determinant of child welfare in custody cases. Proceedings oF ICWC 2016.Subang Jaya, Malaysia.

Mohamed Azam bin Mohamed Adil & Rafeah Saidon. (2017). Diakses daripada http://www.iais.org.my/e/attach/2017/29AUG2017/DrMohamedAzam.pdf

Mimi Kamariah Majid. (1998). Undang-undang Keluarga di Malayia, Kuala Lumpur, Butterworths Asia.

Najibah Mohd. Zin. (2018). Akta membaharui (perkahwinan dan perceraian) (Pindaan) Akta 1976. Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, 30(1).

Narizan Abdul Rahman. (2007) Hak Kekeluargaan Pasangan Berlainan Agama, Dlm. Ahmad Hidayat Buang (Ed.), Undang-undang Islam di Malaysia: Prinsip dan amalan. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya.

Noor Aziah Mohd Awal. (2005). Child's right to religion in Malaysia: An overview. IKIM Law Journal, Special Edition in Memory of Ahmad Ibrahim, 9(1), 311.

Noor Aziah Mohd Awal. (1999). Section 51 of Law Reform (Marriage & Divorce) Act 1976: An overview. [1999] IKIM Law Journal, Vol 3 No2, Kuala Lumpur: Insititut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia.

Noor Aziah Mohd Awal. (2004). Pertukaranagama: Hak penjagaan anak-isu dan masalah religious conversion [2004] MLJ xxxiv.

Noor Aziah Mohd Awal. (2007). Penjagaan dan pemeliharaan anak. Dlm. Shamsuddin Sohor & Noor Aziah (Eds.), Undang-undang Keluarga (Sivil).Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Normi Abdul Malek. (2007). Hadanah. Dlm. Najibah Mohd Zin (Ed.), Undang-undang Keluarga (Islam). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Normi Abdul Malek. (2004). Hadanah menurut undang-undang Islam dan pelaksanaannya di Malaysia. Jurnal Undang-undang IKIM Law Journal. Kuala Lumpur: Insititut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia

Normi, 2011. Unresolved issues in custody matters: The position in Malaysia, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 7(13), 2240-2248.

Norliah Ibrahim, Najibah Mohd Zin, Nora Abdul Hak, Roslina Che Soh, Noraini Md. Hashim, Normi Abdul Malek, Azizah Mohd & Mohd Hisham Mohd Kamal. (2011). Family law (non-muslim) in Malaysia. Selangor: IIUM Press.

Raihanah Abdullah. (2007). Hak nafkah dan hadanah.Dlm. Ahmad Hidayat Buang(Ed.),Undang-undang Islam di Malaysia: Prinsip dan amalan. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya.

Ramizah Wan Muhamad. (2009). Administration of Islamic judicial system in ASEAN countries with particular reference to Malaysia. Saarbruken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing AG & Co KG.

Shamsuddin Suhor. (2011). Panduan Akta Membaharui Undang-Undang Perkahwinan dan Perceraian 1976 (Akta 164). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka

Uqlah, Muhammad. (1984). Nidzam al-usrah fi al-Islam. Amman: Maktabah al-Risalah al-Hadithah.

Zuliza Mohd Kusrin, Mohd Zamro Muda, Md Yazid Ahmad & Mohd Al-Adib Samuri. (2017). Perkembangan penghakiman kes-kes pemelukan Islam dan implikasi perundangan terhadap pindaan rang undang-undang seksyen 51A dan 88A Akta 164. Isu Syariah dan Undang-Undang Siri 23.

Zuliza Mohd Kusrin & Nurhidayah Muhammad Hashim (2016). Pemelukan Islam pasangan perkahwinan sivil: Isu berbangkit dan cadangan penambahbaikan menurut undang-undang Malaysia. Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, 28(1).
Published
2021-01-07
How to Cite
YASIN, Redwan; MOHD AWAL, Noor Aziah; MUSA, Nurhafilah. Custody of Mualaf's Child: Resolution of Law Conflict in Malaysia. Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, [S.l.], v. 33, n. 1, p. 51-78, jan. 2021. ISSN 2682-8057. Available at: <https://jurnal.dbp.my/index.php/Kanun/article/view/8077>. Date accessed: 23 may 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.37052/kanun.33(1)no3.